- Latin name:
Common apricot, or cultivated apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris), belongs to the genus apricot (Armeniaca), which unites deciduous trees and shrubs up to 15 m high. It is grown primarily as a fruit plant, but the species is also highly valued as a beautiful spring-blooming crop.
It is a tree with a strong trunk covered with blackish-brown bark. The branches are unevenly arranged, but in General the crown is rounded. Pointed leaves from elongated oval to heart-shaped, toothed at the top, glossy, green, on thin long petioles. White or pink, single or bunched flowers bloom earlier than the leaves on bare branches. The fruit is a velvety orange-yellow juicy sweet drupe (the pulp of cultivated forms is fine-fibrous), Matures in June-July. There is a groove on the long side. The pulp is easily separated from the seed (stone). The seed is large and almond-shaped. There are many varieties grown, with different fruits in shape, size and maturation time.
Apricot is grown in the open ground. It is used in gardening as a beautiful and early flowering plant, to strengthen sandy soils, as a rootstock for a peach. Plants grafted on rootstock are planted in early spring; in areas with cold winters, they need a place protected from the wind. It grows well in aerated soils, does not tolerate stagnant moisture. When planting, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 3-5 kg/m2.
It begins to bear fruit on the 3rd-4th year. Both at an early and late stage of development, apricot does not tolerate strong pruning. Therefore, they are usually limited to simply thinning out last year's trees and removing dry or damaged branches. It should be borne in mind that flowering occurs primarily on bouquet branches (short branches with flower and growth buds), so if possible, they are not touched. Edible apricot fruits are consumed fresh and dried (dried apricots, apricots) and go for processing.
It is necessary only for young plants during periods of drought, but adult plants are drought-resistant.
They are propagated by seeds and seedlings, in culture-by grafting on plum, wild apricot, less often by seeds. It is preferable to propagate by grafting on a rootstock of the same species grown from seed, or on other species, such as tangerine (used on calcareous soils), peach and especially wild plum. This method favors early and abundant fruiting, but often such an inoculation fails.
Apricots need a bright, sunny place. It is necessary to protect the plantings from cold winds, which can damage the flowers, which will lead to the absence of fruits.
These plants are resistant to both high and low air temperatures.
Diseases and pests
Especially dangerous is the fungus Coryneum beijerinckii, which first forms brown spots on the leaves, and then on the flowers. It also affects branches (spots and growths), buds (drying out) and forming fruits (premature falling off). Moniliosis (Monilinia laxa) in the spring leads to drying of twigs and flowers, later the fruits become covered with mold, shrivel and dry out. In both cases, the damaged parts are removed and treated (preferably prophylactically) with antifungal drugs (dithiocarbamates, for example, tsineb). Pests are often attacked by the dangerous Eastern moth (Laspeyresia molesta). The affected shoots are removed and treated with insecticides.
Apricots are easily found in horticultural centers and nurseries, primarily in those that specialize in fruit trees. They are purchased in the fall or spring (during the dormant period), then planted finally in the ground. Find out what kind of rootstock is used, and make sure that there are no dry or damaged twigs.
|Watering||necessary for young plants and during periods of drought|
|Appearance maintenance||not required|
|Location||in the open sun|
|Temperature||resistant to both low and high temperatures|
|Height||up to 8-15 m|
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