- Latin name:
- Europe, Asia, Africa.
The genus Chrysanthemum is very diverse and consists of about 200 herbaceous and semi-shrubby species, perennial or annual, frost-resistant or unstable. However, the number of species cultivated in floriculture is not so large. There are many classifications of chrysanthemums, where varieties are grouped according to various characteristics of inflorescences (primarily by inflorescence size), by flowering time, and by other characteristics (for example, double color, inflorescence shape, etc.).
Chrysanthemum shrub (Chrysanthemum frutescens) blooms all year round, but only in mild climates, in cold climates it has a summer flowering. The plant is 30-90 cm high; inflorescences are white baskets, with yellow median flowers. It is often used as flowers for cutting.
White chrysanthemum (Withh. leucanthemum, or Leucanthemum vulgare) is a perennial frost-resistant plant with white baskets up to 4 cm in diameter. Flowering in spring and summer. Very popular in floriculture type.
Large chrysanthemum (Ch. maximum) is also from stable perennials. In summer, white daisy-shaped baskets with a diameter of up to 8 cm appear on it. Varieties of various heights with larger flowers, snow-white or creamy-white, are bred.
Annual species bloom very long in summer. Among them, chrysanthemum carinatum, or keeled (Ch. carinatum) is more than 60 cm high with simple single baskets up to 5 cm in diameter, white or yellowish with a characteristic yellow ring and a dark purple center. There are garden forms with reddish terry baskets. Many varieties and forms are grown.
The so-called Korean chrysanthemums are actually the result of crossing the small-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coreanum) and an early variety of Dendranthemum silkworm (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The first plant has small pinkish-white baskets and branched peduncles. The second plant is characterized by flowers much larger than the first type. Korean chrysanthemums grow to a height of 15-30 cm. Their flowering period ends late, in November. Crossing their varieties made it possible to obtain very interesting flowers that are characterized by endurance in relation to unfavorable external factors, the shape and abundance of flowers: simple, semi-double and double, a wide range of colors. Except in addition, hybrid forms and varieties are resistant to diseases, adapted to growing in greenhouses, and are characterized by early flowering, for example, in July-August, and not only in October. The most interesting of them. Andromeda is a plant with pale yellow flowers. The varieties 'Yellow Cicada 'and' Cristobal 'have yellow flowers;' Felipa 'and' Pink Pegasus ' have pink flowers with a yellow core. 'Martin' is a hybrid with white flowers with a yellow core. Molina and Overseas Violet are varieties with purplish-red flowers with a more pronounced yellow core than Molina.
Annual chrysanthemums are bred in the open ground, decorated with stony gardens, flowerbeds and borders, and also grown in the form of potted flowering plants, used as cut flowers. Large-flowered chrysanthemums are grown, as a rule, in pots in the form of single-stemmed plants. Shrub chrysanthemum in cold climates is grown in a pot so that it is possible to remove the plant for the winter in the house, otherwise it will have to be used as an annual. Chrysanthemum requires a fertile soil filled with organic fertilizers, slightly acidic or neutral, with good soil quality. water permeability and mandatory application of mineral fertilizers in the amount of 40-50 g/m2. To feed potted specimens, 30 g of complete mineral (NPK) fertilizer is diluted in a bucket of water for irrigation with a ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) of 2:1:1 during active growth and with a ratio of 1:1:2 during flowering. Perennial species are planted in spring or autumn. Chrysanthemums are short-day plants they bloom only after exposure to a certain number of short days (lasting 8-14 hours). Therefore, usually in summer there is only vegetative growth, and you can cause flowering by artificially shortening the daylight hours to 8-10 hours. In winter, on the contrary, additional illumination is used.
Remove damaged parts and faded shoots.
During the growing season, watering should be plentiful and frequent. But in winter, at low temperatures, water is limited.
Perennial plants grown in pots are transplanted at the end of winter to new, more spacious ones, filling them with the same soil that was recommended above for cultivation.
Large-flowered and small-flowered chrysanthemums are usually propagated by herbaceous cuttings in late winter and spring. Cuttings from root growth with short internodes and dark green leaves are most suitable. Cuttings are planted in boxes or pots to a depth of 1-1. 5 cm, sprayed, and the air temperature is maintained at 12-15 °C. Cuttings take root in about 1 month. They are transplanted into pots in a mixture of turf, humus and sand (4: 4:1) with the addition of organic and mineral fertilizers. Later, the plants are fed nitrogen; the main stem is pinched to allow branching.
The minimum temperature is 8-10 °C, optimal for growth and flowering is 14-18 °C.
Class I. Flat ones. In the center of the inflorescence is an open disk surrounded by several rows of bright red flowers. It is divided into 2 groups: non-double and semi-double.
Class II. Convex ones. In the center of the inflorescence are long tubular flowers, similar in color to the lingual ones in one or several rows. Includes 1 group: anemonidae.
Class III. Terry ones. The center of the inflorescence of tubular flowers does not stand out. Inflorescences mainly consist of reed flowers, different in shape, color, size and location. It is divided into 7 groups: bent and hanging, flat, hemispherical, spherical, curly, xiphoid, pompom.
This classification does not include varieties of arachnoid and other groups with original inflorescence shapes (including those of Japanese-Chinese origin).
|Watering||frequent during the growing season|
|Transplanting||at the end of winter|
|Appearance maintenance||remove yellowed parts|
|Temperature||optimal 14-18 °C|
|Flowering time||spring-summer depending on the species|
|Height||from 0.15 to 2 m, depending on the type and variety|
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- Ilyina E. Ya., Sterligova E. I. Indoor plants and their use in the interior. — Sverdlovsk: Ural University, 1991 — 208 s — 130000 copies. — ISBN 9785752502118
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