Malus

Thousands of sweet varieties

Description

Malus
Latin name:
Malus.
Family:
Rosaceae.
Homeland:
Europe.

The genus Apple tree (Malus) includes more than 30 species of shrubs and trees.

Apple tree (Malus domestica) - a deciduous tree up to 20 m high or a shrub with a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m, is a widespread, artificially created species in culture. The core, well-developed root system of an apple tree is 2-3 times larger than the crown radius. Young shoots are pubescent, old - with a cracked crust. The leaves are simple regular ovate with a pointed end, serrated-sawn. The flowers are large, white or pink, in umbrella-shaped inflorescences.

The apple tree is a cross-pollinated plant, so when planting it is necessary to provide pollinating varieties. Fruit - an apple formed from a five-nest ovary after the growth of a flower pod.

The apple tree begins to bear fruit in the 3rd-10th year after planting, depending on the variety, rootstock, care and agricultural technology.

Apple cultivars are plentiful. There are more than 10 thousand varieties obtained as a result of natural and artificial hybridization, spontaneous and artificial mutagenesis and subsequent selection. Apple trees at home are characterized by relatively high winter hardiness and yield.

Cultivation

Apple trees as a fruit crop are grown in the open ground. They are planted in a permanent place in the form of 1-2-year-old seedlings in spring (in moderately cold climates). Seedlings are placed at a distance of 4-8 m, depending on the growth strength of the rootstock and variety. They are planted in planting pits, in which fertilizers are pre-applied. The root neck should be at the level of the soil surface.

It grows well in various types of soils with a neutral and slightly acidic reaction of the environment, with the exception of wetlands. The apple tree should be provided with the necessary and sufficient food area; it is recommended to uproot shading trees, properly form and prune the crown. Tillage of young apple tree plantings consists of weeding the trunk bushes, loosening and watering; in autumn, the soil is shallowly dug. Periodically fertilizing is carried out, and fertilizers are applied based on the area of trunk circles in young plantings, fruit-bearing trees are fed based on the entire food area.

In summer, if necessary, supports-stakes are installed to the branches of fruit-bearing trees.

Watering

The irrigation regime depends on the amount of precipitation and the type of soil. If the soil is sandy, water it abundantly and often. If clay, then water less often. During periods of drought, young plantings are watered weekly and abundantly.

Reproduction

Sowing seeds is used only to obtain grafts, which are later grafted to the rootstock - otherwise it is impossible to preserve the properties of the original varieties. Apple trees are propagated mainly by grafting. In some cases, the choice of rootstock becomes a fundamental factor in determining yield.

In specialized centers, you can get information and advice about the requirements of the rootstock and variety. For planting in the garden, it is best to use annual seedlings, because if the rules of cultivation are observed, they are easier to transfer than adult seedlings.

Location

Optimal placement is in the open sun.

Temperature

This is a plant whose zoned varieties are successfully grown even in the northern regions. It is necessary to be wary of spring frosts during flowering (in the middle zone - in May).

Diseases and pests

The fruit crop is susceptible to specific diseases.

Cancer of the apple tree (Nectria galligena) causes the appearance of brown necrotic spots on branches and young shoots, the spots grow gradually and the affected parts dry out. We recommend cutting and deleting them.

When the apple tree Monilinia fructigena is affected, the fruits and branches are covered with concentric circles - pads of whitish rot. The affected parts are removed and treated with dithiocarbamates.

The bristle-haired tinder (Polyporus hispidus) forms first bright orange-yellow, then brown fruit bodies in the form of cantilevers on trunks and branches, causing wood decomposition. In this case, close individual wounds (as with pruning) with garden var to avoid penetration of the fungus.

The California scabbard (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) drains nutrients from the plant, resulting in scabs on the branches and round spots on the leaves and fruits. It is eliminated with activated oil (in winter) and white oil (in summer).

Caterpillars of the pest Cheimatobia brunata gnaw the leaves. They get rid of them by applying sticky, ready-made rings to the trunk, they can be found on sale.

The common spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) bites through the leaves, which then turn brown, dry out and fall off. They get rid of it with the help of acaricides.

The apple flower eater (Anthonomus pomorum), both at the larval and adult stages, damages the flowers, causing them to fall off. Preventive measures against the pest include treatment with appropriate insecticides in the spring to remove females before they lay eggs.

Acquisition

Apple seedlings are easily found in gardening centers, nurseries, and even supermarkets. Carefully check the condition of the plants when purchasing.

Care summary

Cultivation requires constant care
Watering young plantings, depending on the type of soil
Transplanting not performed
Appearance maintenance not required
Location open sunny
Temperature resistant to both low and high temperatures
Flowering time in spring
Height up to 20 m

Literature

  • Malus // Great Soviet Encyclopedia. — M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978. — 630000 copies.
  • Ilyina E. Ya., Sterligova E. I. Indoor plants and their use in the interior. — Sverdlovsk: Ural University, 1991 — 208 s — 130000 copies. — ISBN 9785752502118
  • Turdiev S. Yu., Vecherko L. I. Flowers in our life. — Alma-Ata: Kainar, 1986. — 217 s — 50000 copies.
  • Chub V. V., Lezina K. D. Complete encyclopedia of indoor plants. — M.: Eksmo, 2003. — 416 s — 7000 copies. — ISBN 9785040060771.
  • Malus // Indoor and garden plants. — M.: Premiere, 2005. — 1274 s — 300,000 copies. — ISSN 1729-1828.
  • Golovkin B. N. What do plant names say. — M.: Kolos, 1992. — 192 s — 70000 copies. — ISBN 9785100025054.
  • Golovkin B. N. 1000 amazing facts from the life of plants. — M.: AST; Astrel, 2001. — 224 s — 10000 copies. — ISBN 9785170105342, ISBN 9785271030529.