Prunus

Fruit and ornamental plants

Description

Latin name:
Prunus.
Family:
Rosaceae.
Homeland:
Europe, Asia.

Plum is a member of the genus Prunus, which contains more than 400 species of trees and shrubs with a height of 7-10 m, with a root system close to the soil surface. The trunk is covered with blackish, longitudinally cracking bark. There are among the types and varieties of plums and decorative, and fruit crops that begin to bear fruit in 4-5 years after planting. In place of the usually white flowers, sweet fleshy fruits with lignified seeds of yellow, red or very dark blue color are formed in summer.

One of the decorative species is the cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) with white or pink flowers that bloom in very large numbers in April-May. The leaves are large red-brown in color. It is often used as a stock for plums in fruit growing.

Prickly plum (P. spinosa), is a strongly branching very prickly shrub with a height of 1-3 m, forms many root offspring, forming impenetrable thickets (hedges). The leaves are oval dark green with a serrated edge. In April, before the leaves open, white, more often single flowers with quickly falling petals appear. Spherical, with a bluish coating, tart-tasting fruits with a diameter of 1-1. 5 cm ripen in autumn.

The most common fruit varieties are obtained from two types: domestic plum (P. domestica) and Chinese plum, or willow-leaved plum (P. salicina). Young shoots of domestic plum are red-brown or greenish-yellow, old trunks with dark gray cracking bark. The leaves are regular simple, with a serrated or serrated edge. The flowers are white, 1.5-2 cm in diameter. Blooms in April-May.

The branches of the Chinese plum are drooping, and the leaves are thin, non-leathery, lanceolate. White flowers bloom early in spring.

Cultivation

Plum is grown in the open ground primarily as a fruit crop, but many species - as an ornamental, they are planted in streets, used in hedges, prickly plum is especially suitable for this purpose. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place on the site in autumn (in temperate climates) or in spring. Plum prefers neutral moist loamy, with a fertile top layer of soil. Plum - one of the most moisture-loving fruit crops, does not tolerate drought. It responds well to the application of both organic and mineral fertilizers (especially when preparing the planting pits). Mulching the soil of trunk circles during the growing season is considered an effective method. Pruning decorative species is not required, it is only needed when cultivating hedges and for removing dry, damaged and unsightly branches.

Watering

In spring and summer, the ground is constantly maintained in a cool, moist state.

Reproduction

Propagated by grafting, root growth, green, root and lignified cuttings, horizontal and vertical layers. Seedlings are grafted mainly on seed rootstocks.

Location

Plums require a sunny and unshaded location.

Temperature

The drain can withstand a short decrease in air temperature to -25 °C. Plums are more demanding of heat than cherries.

Diseases and pests

Pests of Hialopterus pruni settle on young shoots and leaves that dry up and fall off, and the fruits are poorly formed and often fall off prematurely. Peach aphid (Myzus persicae) causes the formation of peculiar blisters on the leaves. In these cases, chemical treatment is used. The false California scab (Quadraspidiotus ostraeeformis) settles on the green parts of the plant, causing a slowdown in development. Get rid of scabies with the help of anti-coccidal drugs. The caterpillars of the butterfly Cheimatobia brunata feed on leaves. Their appearance can only be prevented by destroying insects, who hide in the ground. The common spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) affects the leaves, in this case, acaricide treatment is carried out.

From diseases especially dangerous gum flow, gum flows from different parts of the plant, causing browning and spotting. The affected parts are removed and treated with dithiocarbamate-containing preparations. Gray fruit rot of stone fruits, Monilinia laxa, provokes browning and spotting of flowers and rotting of fruits. The affected parts are removed and treated with dithiocarbamates. Stereum purpureum changes the color of the leaves to gray with a metallic sheen, they become very fragile, spots appear on the trunk and branches. Destroy the affected parts. For infected plants Taphrina pruni, characterized by yellow spots on the leaves and uneven fruit development (elongated shape, rough surface). The affected parts are removed and treated with copper-or dithiocarbamate-containing preparations.

Acquisition

Plum seedlings are extremely easy to find in gardening centers and specialized nurseries. When choosing ornamental plants, focus on small but well-formed specimens.

Care summary

Cultivation medium difficulty
Watering frequent and plentiful in spring and summer
Transplanting not performed
Appearance maintenance not required
Location highly lit, even in the open sun
Temperature demanding for heat
Flowering time late winter-spring
Height 7-10 m

Literature

  • Prunus // Great Soviet Encyclopedia. — M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978. — 630000 copies.
  • Ilyina E. Ya., Sterligova E. I. Indoor plants and their use in the interior. — Sverdlovsk: Ural University, 1991 — 208 s — 130000 copies. — ISBN 9785752502118
  • Turdiev S. Yu., Vecherko L. I. Flowers in our life. — Alma-Ata: Kainar, 1986. — 217 s — 50000 copies.
  • Chub V. V., Lezina K. D. Complete encyclopedia of indoor plants. — M.: Eksmo, 2003. — 416 s — 7000 copies. — ISBN 9785040060771.
  • Prunus // Indoor and garden plants. — M.: Premiere, 2005. — 1274 s — 300,000 copies. — ISSN 1729-1828.
  • Golovkin B. N. What do plant names say. — M.: Kolos, 1992. — 192 s — 70000 copies. — ISBN 9785100025054.
  • Golovkin B. N. 1000 amazing facts from the life of plants. — M.: AST; Astrel, 2001. — 224 s — 10000 copies. — ISBN 9785170105342, ISBN 9785271030529.