- Latin name:
- Europe, Asia.
Plum is a member of the genus Prunus, which contains more than 400 species of trees and shrubs with a height of 7-10 m, with a root system close to the soil surface. The trunk is covered with blackish, longitudinally cracking bark. There are among the types and varieties of plums and decorative, and fruit crops that begin to bear fruit in 4-5 years after planting. In place of the usually white flowers, sweet fleshy fruits with lignified seeds of yellow, red or very dark blue color are formed in summer.
One of the decorative species is the cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) with white or pink flowers that bloom in very large numbers in April-May. The leaves are large red-brown in color. It is often used as a stock for plums in fruit growing.
Prickly plum (P. spinosa), is a strongly branching very prickly shrub with a height of 1-3 m, forms many root offspring, forming impenetrable thickets (hedges). The leaves are oval dark green with a serrated edge. In April, before the leaves open, white, more often single flowers with quickly falling petals appear. Spherical, with a bluish coating, tart-tasting fruits with a diameter of 1-1. 5 cm ripen in autumn.
The most common fruit varieties are obtained from two types: domestic plum (P. domestica) and Chinese plum, or willow-leaved plum (P. salicina). Young shoots of domestic plum are red-brown or greenish-yellow, old trunks with dark gray cracking bark. The leaves are regular simple, with a serrated or serrated edge. The flowers are white, 1.5-2 cm in diameter. Blooms in April-May.
The branches of the Chinese plum are drooping, and the leaves are thin, non-leathery, lanceolate. White flowers bloom early in spring.
Plum is grown in the open ground primarily as a fruit crop, but many species - as an ornamental, they are planted in streets, used in hedges, prickly plum is especially suitable for this purpose. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place on the site in autumn (in temperate climates) or in spring. Plum prefers neutral moist loamy, with a fertile top layer of soil. Plum - one of the most moisture-loving fruit crops, does not tolerate drought. It responds well to the application of both organic and mineral fertilizers (especially when preparing the planting pits). Mulching the soil of trunk circles during the growing season is considered an effective method. Pruning decorative species is not required, it is only needed when cultivating hedges and for removing dry, damaged and unsightly branches.
In spring and summer, the ground is constantly maintained in a cool, moist state.
Propagated by grafting, root growth, green, root and lignified cuttings, horizontal and vertical layers. Seedlings are grafted mainly on seed rootstocks.
Plums require a sunny and unshaded location.
The drain can withstand a short decrease in air temperature to -25 °C. Plums are more demanding of heat than cherries.
Diseases and pests
Pests of Hialopterus pruni settle on young shoots and leaves that dry up and fall off, and the fruits are poorly formed and often fall off prematurely. Peach aphid (Myzus persicae) causes the formation of peculiar blisters on the leaves. In these cases, chemical treatment is used. The false California scab (Quadraspidiotus ostraeeformis) settles on the green parts of the plant, causing a slowdown in development. Get rid of scabies with the help of anti-coccidal drugs. The caterpillars of the butterfly Cheimatobia brunata feed on leaves. Their appearance can only be prevented by destroying insects, who hide in the ground. The common spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) affects the leaves, in this case, acaricide treatment is carried out.
From diseases especially dangerous gum flow, gum flows from different parts of the plant, causing browning and spotting. The affected parts are removed and treated with dithiocarbamate-containing preparations. Gray fruit rot of stone fruits, Monilinia laxa, provokes browning and spotting of flowers and rotting of fruits. The affected parts are removed and treated with dithiocarbamates. Stereum purpureum changes the color of the leaves to gray with a metallic sheen, they become very fragile, spots appear on the trunk and branches. Destroy the affected parts. For infected plants Taphrina pruni, characterized by yellow spots on the leaves and uneven fruit development (elongated shape, rough surface). The affected parts are removed and treated with copper-or dithiocarbamate-containing preparations.
Plum seedlings are extremely easy to find in gardening centers and specialized nurseries. When choosing ornamental plants, focus on small but well-formed specimens.
|Watering||frequent and plentiful in spring and summer|
|Appearance maintenance||not required|
|Location||highly lit, even in the open sun|
|Temperature||demanding for heat|
|Flowering time||late winter-spring|
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