- Latin name:
- Central Asia.
- Alternative name:
The genus Pear (Pyrus) includes about 60 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, which can grow up to 15 m in height. Pear is a valuable fruit and ornamental crop. Blooms in April-May.
The calleriana pear (Pyrus calleriana) is characterized by prickly branches and egg-shaped glossy green leaves with a finely toothed edge. They are grown as decorative, primarily varieties and varieties with abundant flowering and beautiful autumn foliage color, for example, 'Aristocrat', 'Chanticleer',' Red Pointed Tower 'of a pyramidal shape and 'Bradford' with a triangular crown shape.
Kawakama pear (P. kawakamii) is a deciduous shrub or tree, but depending on environmental conditions, it can be semi-evergreen.
The Ussuri pear (P. ussuriensis) is a lush early-flowering deciduous species up to 15 m high.
As fruit trees, the common pear (P communis), a tree with a blackish-brown rough cracked bark, is most often grown. The leaves are hard, oval, pointed, and turn reddish in autumn. Fruits of various shades of yellow and brown color, have a more or less elongated shape, fleshy flesh.
Pears are grown in the open ground. Some dwarf varieties, such as the' Golden Pear ' of the common pear, can be grown outdoors in pots. They are planted as one - or two-year-old seedlings, which are planted in spring in loamy or sandy loam soil with low groundwater standing. They are placed in planting pits, where organic (2-4 kg, for example, well-rotted manure) or mineral (100-300 g of complex) fertilizers are pre-applied. Mature pear trees, as compared to other fruit crops, can more easily tolerate a lack of moisture in the upper layers of the soil than an excess water in the subsurface layer. Most varieties of pears are self-fertile, so it is necessary to plant at least two trees of different varieties on the site, blooming at the same time. In young plantings, mulching of the soil of trunk circles is used; fertilizers are applied to increase the yield. The crown of young trees is formed from the 1st year of planting. In spring, take measures to protect buds and flowers from frost.
Pear is a moisture-loving crop. It is necessary to water young plants-seedlings immediately after planting in a permanent place in the garden and during periods of prolonged drought. If the soil is very loose, it is recommended to cover it with straw, leaves or other material to keep it moist.
Dwarf varieties are transplanted in spring once every 2-3 years, until the diameter of the pot reaches 30-40 cm. Then you just need to replace the surface layer of the earth.
Propagate the pear in a vegetative way, mainly by grafting. If necessary, young and fruit-bearing trees are re-grafted with other varieties. The best roots tock for pears is quince.
Pear prefers a place in the open sun, if possible protected from cold winds.
The pear is more thermophilic and less hardy than the apple tree. The plant can be damaged by severe and prolonged winter frosts and prolonged summer heat.
Diseases and pests
Infection with California scabies (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) causes rough round spots on leaves and fruits. They get rid of it by chemical treatment. Pest Calocoris biclavatus causes the appearance of reddish spots on the fruit first, and then solid ulcers. Remove the affected fruits; for prevention, treat with appropriate insecticides until the buds bloom. Larvae of the fruit pear gall (Contarinia pirivora) infect ripening fruits, causing them to swell, turn brown and fall off. In this case, remove the affected fruit. Caterpillars of the brown pig head (Chiematobia brunata) eat the leaves. They get rid of them by applying sticky rings (ready for use) to the trunk. The common spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) bites through the leaves, due to then they turn brown, dry up and fall off. They get rid of it with the help of acaricides. Larvae of the pear sawfly (Hoplocampa brevis) eat unformed fruits that are picked by hand. Their appearance is prevented by processing with complex phosphoric esters before opening the buds. Caterpillars of the apple moth (Carpocapsa pomonella) feast on fruits that then deform and rot. Treated with insecticides containing phosphoric esters.
Cancer caused by Nectria galligena, leads to the appearance of brown spots on branches and shoots, then depressions form in their place. Remove diseased branches, and treat wounds with fungicides. Venturia pirina causes mottling of branches (swell, then burst), leaves and fruits. The affected parts are removed and treated with copper-and dithio carbomate-containing preparations. Young trees are damaged by hares and mice.
|Cultivation||requires special care|
|Watering||necessary for young plants and during periods of drought|
|Appearance maintenance||not required|
|Location||in the open sun|
|Temperature||resistant to high temperature|
|Height||up to 15 m|
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