Tulipa

How many colors and shapes are there

Description

Tulipa
Latin name:
Tulipa.
Family:
Liliaceae.
Homeland:
Asia Minor.

Tulips come from a climate zone with very cold winters and very hot summers. Therefore, the plants are highly resistant to frost and harsh winters. The first varieties were introduced to Europe in the 17th century. Those tulips that are grown today are characterized by a noticeable variety of shapes, colors and sizes of flowers with a diameter of 4 to 20 cm. Usually on a separate high and strong peduncle - one flower, most often of considerable size. However, there are species that have up to b flowers on their stems. The color of tulip flowers can be either uniform or with different color transitions and shades: along the edges of the perianth leaves, at the base and in the throat. The perianth lobes are very often decorated with stripes and ornaments. The flowers can have different shapes: cup-shaped, goblet-shaped, oval, lily-colored, double, star-shaped (with the petals bent outwards). The leaves are oval-lanceolate or linear in shape. There are fragrant varieties with a lily of the valley or clove smell.

Cultivation

These outdoor plants can also be grown on the terrace in pots and boxes. Early tulips, on the other hand, can only be grown at home. To carry out distillation, a special, temperature-controlled treatment of bulbs is required. Bulbs are planted in autumn at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, and after flowering in spring, when the leaves dry out, the bulbs are removed from the ground and stored in a dry room, in shallow containers, and the next autumn they are again planted in the open ground. Dwarf and botanical species are particularly well suited to rocky gardens. They are very resistant to it is cold, and at the end of flowering there is no need to remove the bulbs from the ground.

Watering

Water 2-3 times a week, trying not to get on the leaves and flowers.

Reproduction

The simplest and most common method of reproduction is the separation of children (daughter bulbs formed next to the mother bulb). To make the children well developed, cut off the flowers. In the period from September to November, children are buried depending on the size (the diameter of the children varies from 2 to 5 cm) to a depth of 5-15 cm. A distance of 3 times greater than the landing depth must be observed between them.

Location

All the numerous types and varieties of tulips require a lot of light, and they can withstand the open sun. If they grow in the garden, they should be protected from the wind.

Temperature

They tolerate very low temperatures well; and if the air temperature does not exceed 18-20 °C, then flowering will not last long.

Diseases and pests

Tulips are damaged by various diseases and pests both during the growing season and during storage.

Some fungal and bacterial diseases cause the bulbs to rot; other pathogens affect the root system by blockage of blood vessels (tracheomycosis), and in this case the plant completely weakens and quickly withers; gray rot affects the leaves and perianth lobes and often causes the buds to dry out.

If the above signs appear, the plant or bulb should be removed. To prevent diseases, it is recommended to inspect the bulbs and use commercially available disinfected soil.

Snails leave a shiny "trail" and gnaw out the leaves and stems; they are disposed of using special baits.

Mites (destroyed by acaricides) provoke rotting of bulbs and redness of tissues.

Acquisition

Bulbs should be of decent size, have a regular rounded shape, without the slightest signs of stains, rot and any other defects. Potted plants are acquired when the future color of flowers can be distinguished on the buds.

Additional information

Groups

For ease of classification, all varieties, hybrids, introduced species and varieties of tulips are grouped into 15 groups by flower type.

  1. Simple Early Ones. Plant height 35-40 cm.
  2. Terry Early Ones. Plant height 30-40 cm.
  3. A triumph. Plant height 50-60 cm.
  4. Darwinian hybrids. Plant height 60-70 cm.
  5. Simple Late Ones. Plant height 60-80 cm.
  6. Lily-colored ones. Plant height 50-60 cm.
  7. Fringed. Plant height 60-70 cm.
  8. Green-flowered plants. Plant height up to 70 cm.
  9. Rembrandt. Plant height 60-80 cm.
  10. Parakeets. Plant height 60-70 cm.
  11. Late Double Ones. Plant height 50-60 cm.
  12. Kaufman. Plant height 15-35 cm.
  13. Foster. Plant height up to 40 cm.
  14. Greig. Plant height 20-50 cm.
  15. Wild-growing species.

Group 3

Group 3 Triumph consists of varieties, mostly obtained from crossing Simple Early varieties with varieties of the Darwin group. In the open ground, these tulips (50-60 cm high) bloom immediately after the Simple Early Ones. The flowers are large, cup-shaped, bright, clean colors. The group's varieties make up about a quarter of all existing varieties. 'Blue Beauty' is distinguished by the intense pink color of the flowers. Peer Gynt has pink flowers with a white pattern, Havran has purple flowers, and Washington has yellow flowers with a red pattern.

Groups 4 and 5

Group 4 is Darwin Hybrids, one of the newest groups of tulips. Originally obtained from Foster's tulips (T. fosteriana). Darwin Hybrids are widely used in industrial decorative gardening, have high viability, are suitable for distillation, and form large bulbs. These are plants with a height of 60-70 cm with lanceolate leaves. The flowers are large and bright.

Group 5 -Simple Late tulips, former Darwin and Cottage tulips. Powerful tall (60-80 cm) plants, medium and late in flowering time. They are easily affected by the variegation virus. The varieties of these groups are listed below. 'Ad Rem' has red flowers with a narrow yellow border; 'Banya Luka' has yellow flowers with a red pattern. The flowers of 'Beauty of Apeldoorn' are yellow with a thick red shading inside the perianth. Color of flowers 'Big Chief' cream and red; 'Pink Imprint' - bright pink with a wide red border around the edge.

Groups 6,9,10 and 12

Group 6 combines Lilli-colored tulips, the flower shape of which is an elongated glass with petals bending outward and pointed at the ends, a slightly convex lower part of a thin, lily-like "waist". A popular variety is 'China Pink' with lilac-pink flowers of medium flowering period.

Group 9 includes Rembrandt tulips. This group also included varieties with variegated color of flowers (caused by a virus of tulip disease). Currently, these are quite rare plants, although modern varieties of them have been tested for the presence of a virus that causes variegation.

Group 10-these are Parrot tulips with a peduncle height of up to 65-70 cm. These include early - and late-flowering varieties that are very effective in landscape gardening, in bouquets and compositions. Flowers-variegated in color, large, unusual spectacular shape with bizarrely indented edges of the perianth lobes. The variety 'Epricot Parrott' has very special flowers: extremely diverse green tones from the outside, from the inside - bright orange. 'Parrott's libretto' is characterized by white-yellow-pink flowers.

Group 12-Kaufmann's tulips, consists of varieties and hybrids obtained from the species T. kaufmanniana. They are characterized by early flowering, gradual opening of anthers and their twisting, two-tone color of flowers. The Stresa variety has flowers that are red on the outside and yellow on the inside. The flowers of Berlioz are yellow.

Groups 13 and 14

Group 13 includes Foster's tulips (T. fosteriana), its varieties and hybrids. Varieties of this group of tulips are characterized by large (up to 12 cm in diameter) flowers of bright color: red, crimson, orange-red; powerful wide leaves.

Group 14 includes Greig's tulips (T. greigii), their varieties and hybrids with other species and varieties. They are characterized by a peculiar flower shape - the perianth lobes are blunt, with a wide base and a noticeable bend in the middle; the outer lobes are always shorter than the inner ones. Almost all varieties have dark streaking and speckling on large decorative leaves. Flowers are very bright in color: red, yellow, orange; flowering in the open ground occurs later than in Foster and Kaufman tulips. Widely distributed varieties: 'Marjoletti' with yellow and red flowers; 'Early' with reds and yellow flowers; 'Ali Baba' with pink-red lily-colored flowers and dark purple stripes along large leaves; 'Buttercup' with carmine-red flowers with a yellow border on the outside (golden-yellow flowers with red spots on the inside). The variety Quebec is distinguished by white flowers with red and yellow spots. Melody de Amor has red and yellow-orange flowers. 'Plaisir' - with cup-shaped yellow bright red-pink flowers along the edge with thick red strokes. The Cape Cod variety has yellow flowers with a red stripe in the center of each petal. Tulips are planted in light, protected areas. windproof areas, preferably on flat, without depressions, surfaces (in hollows, bulbs can get wet from stagnation of water).

Care summary

Cultivation simple
Watering every other day
Transplanting not performed
Appearance maintenance remove dead flowers
Location well lit
Temperature 18-20 °C
Flowering time in spring
Height 10-60 cm

Literature

  • Tulipa // Great Soviet Encyclopedia. — M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978. — 630000 copies.
  • Ilyina E. Ya., Sterligova E. I. Indoor plants and their use in the interior. — Sverdlovsk: Ural University, 1991 — 208 s — 130000 copies. — ISBN 9785752502118
  • Turdiev S. Yu., Vecherko L. I. Flowers in our life. — Alma-Ata: Kainar, 1986. — 217 s — 50000 copies.
  • Chub V. V., Lezina K. D. Complete encyclopedia of indoor plants. — M.: Eksmo, 2003. — 416 s — 7000 copies. — ISBN 9785040060771.
  • Tulipa // Indoor and garden plants. — M.: Premiere, 2005. — 1274 s — 300,000 copies. — ISSN 1729-1828.
  • Golovkin B. N. What do plant names say. — M.: Kolos, 1992. — 192 s — 70000 copies. — ISBN 9785100025054.
  • Golovkin B. N. 1000 amazing facts from the life of plants. — M.: AST; Astrel, 2001. — 224 s — 10000 copies. — ISBN 9785170105342, ISBN 9785271030529.